The Arctic, Southern, Indian, Atlantic, and Pacific oceans are ranked in order of size from smallest to largest.
If you include the smaller seas such as the Barents, Beaufort, Chukchi, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Lincoln, Wandel, Greenland, and Norwegian, among others, the ocean covers approximately 361,000,000 km2 (which is approximately 71 percent of the Earth’s surface), has a total volume of approximately 1,370,000,000 km3, and has an average depth of 3,790 meters (meters of water below sea level). Our hydrosphere (which includes the ocean as well as all freshwater found in groundwater, lakes, rivers, snow, ice, and the atmosphere) accounts for approximately 0.023 percent of the total mass of the Earth.
The majority of ocean sediments are made up of terrigenous, pelagic, and authigenic elements. Terrigenous deposits are formed by the erosion, weathering, and volcanic activity of the land, which wash out to sea and result in the accumulation of sand, mud, and rock particles that form terrigenous deposits. Thus, terrigenous deposits are restricted to limited marginal bands close to land, such as continental shelves, and are deepest in the mouths of big rivers or arid beaches. Terrigenous deposits are also confined to narrow marginal bands near land, such as continental shelves. Red clays and the skeletal remnants of creatures that have died and sunk to the ocean floor are found in pelagic deposits, which are formed by the action of seawater. Pelagic red clays and globigerina, as well as pteropods and siliceous oozes, are examples of such materials. Although these biological remains can be found on the ocean floor at depths ranging from 60 to 3,300 meters, they are most abundant in convergence belts and upwelling zones, where they can be found in the greatest abundance. These deposits are composed of particles such as manganese nodules and include the minerals montmorillonite and phillipsite. They can be found in areas where the sedimentation process happens slowly or where currents sort out the deposits, as in the case of the Grand Canyon.
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Table of Contents
The Arctic Ocean Is A Large Body Of Water Located North Of The Arctic Circle.
The Arctic Ocean is separated into two basins, the Eurasian or Nasin basin, which is 4,000-4,500 metres deep, and the North American or Hyperborean basin, which is also 4,000 metres deep. The Lomonosov ridge, an undersea ocean ridge, separates the two basins. There are a variety of terrains found in the Arctic Ocean’s bottom, including fault-block ridges, abysmal plains, ocean deeps, and equatorial basins, which have an average depth of 1,038 metres because of the continental shelf on the Eurasian side.
The majority of the water entering the Arctic Ocean originates from the Atlantic via the Norwegian Current (which then travels down the Eurasian coast), but water also enters from the Pacific via the Bering Strait. The Arctic Ocean is the world’s largest ocean. The East Greenland Current is responsible for the majority of the outflow. Historically, ice covered the majority of the Arctic Ocean all year (this is now changing drastically due to global warming). When the ice melts, the salinity of the water and the temperature below freezing change. Rain and snow are produced as a result of subfreezing temperatures causing air going towards the equator to cool and mix with warmer air at middle latitudes, resulting in precipitation. It is believed that marine life is few in the chilly waters of the Arctic Ocean, with the exception of the open, southerly regions, where it thrives. Air traffic over the Arctic is common due to the fact that it is the shortest route between the Pacific coast of North America and the European continent. When it comes to boats, the Russian cities of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk are the most important ports (Archangel).
The Southern Ocean Is A Body Of Water Located In The Southern Hemisphere.
The Southern Ocean is the world’s fourth-largest body of water, after the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. In fact, it encircles Antarctica and is divided between the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. The majority of people in North America and Continental Europe are unfamiliar with the region, and they consider it to be a continuation of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans that extends all the way to Antarctica. Nevertheless, because mariners have traditionally referred to this area as the “Southern Ocean,” the International Hydrographic Organization recognized it as an ocean in 2000, and it was designated as such in 2001. This ocean is primarily composed of deep water, with an average depth of 4,000-5,000 meters. It also contains the Antarctic continental shelf, which is an extremely deep and narrow area with an edge 400-800 meters deep (over 270-670 m deeper than average). The South Sandwich Trench is 7,235 meters deep at its deepest point, which is located at the southern extremity of the trench. Between March and September, the size of the Antarctic ice pack increases by a factor of seven (however this is changing as a result of global warming), increasing from 2,600,000 km2 to 18,800,000 km2. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (21,000 km in length) is the world’s longest ocean current, and it flows constantly eastward here, transporting 130,000,000 m3 of water every second, or 100 times the total flow of all the world’s rivers combined.
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Environmental Concerns Of The Present
An increase in solar UV radiation emanating from the Antarctic ozone hole is reducing marine primary productivity, often known as phytoplankton, by as much as 15 percent and is even altering the DNA of some fish, according to recent research.
Unregulated (5-6 times higher than the regulated fishery) and unreported illegal fishing of Patagonian toothfish has been taking place, and this activity will have a long-term impact on the long-term viability of the remaining stock of toothfish. This illegal fishing also increases the mortality of seabirds, who become entangled in the long-lines used for toothfish and die as a result of their capture.
The seal population, which is now protected, is making a robust recovery after being severely overexploited in the 18th and 19th centuries, according to scientists.
Agreements On The Environment Signed At The International Level
The Southern Ocean, which was just recently declared as a separate ocean, is now subject to all international accords pertaining to the world’s oceans, including those pertaining to climate change. In accordance with the International Hydrographic Organization, which has decided that the Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica to 60° S latitude, the boundaries between the oceans are defined by the International Hydrographic Organization. International Whaling Commission reports that the Southern Ocean is likewise subject to similar agreements that are peculiar to the region and that commercial whaling is prohibited south of 40 degrees South latitude. Several international treaties, including the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, control sealing in this region of the world, as does the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, which regulates fishing. Many countries forbid natural resource development and exploitation south of the changing Antarctic Polar Front, also known as the Antarctic Convergence, which runs through the continent. The Antarctic Convergence is located in the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and serves as a dividing line between the extremely cold polar surface waters to the south and the warmer waters to the north of the continent. The Antarctic Convergence is located in the middle of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.
The Indian Ocean Is A Large Body Of Water.
The Indian Ocean is the third-largest body of water on the planet, accounting for nearly 20% of the planet’s total water surface area. Southern Asia forms its northern border, with the Arabian Peninsula and Africa forming its western border, the Malay Peninsula, the Sundra Islands and Australia forming its eastern border, and the Southern Ocean forming its southern border, all of which are part of a larger region known as the Southern Ocean. A line is drawn between the 20° east meridian and the Atlantic Ocean, and between the 147° east meridian and the Pacific Ocean, separates the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean. At its northernmost point, the Indian Ocean stretches to around 30° N latitude in the Persian Gulf, which is the southernmost point of the ocean. Located in the southernmost points of Africa and Australia, it spans about 10,000 kilometers (or 6,200 miles) in width and covers 73,556,000 kilometers (or 28,400,000 square miles) in size when the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf are taken into account. Approximately 292,131,000 km3 (or 70,086,000 mi3) of water has been calculated to be contained within this vast body of water. Small islands along the continental borders, such as Madagascar (the world’s fourth-largest island), Comoros, Seychelles, the Maldives, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia, are among the country’s other distinguishing characteristics. The Indian Ocean serves as a vital transit route between Asia and Africa, a geographical characteristic that has sparked a number of significant historical battles in the region. Because the Indian Ocean is so vast, no nation had ever been able to rule it until the beginning of the nineteenth century, when Britain was able to exert control over much of the surrounding territory.
A Y-shaped branch of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge and a stem running south from the edge of the continental shelf near Mumbai, India mark the convergence of the African, Indian, and Antarctic crustal plates beneath the surface of the Indian Ocean. The African, Indian, and Antarctic crustal plates are converging at this location. The ridges formed as a result of this subdivision separate the eastern, western, and southern basins into smaller subbasins. The Indian Ocean is comprised of thin continental shelves with a breadth of 200 km (125 miles), with the exception of a shelf with a width of more than 1,000 km (600 miles) off the western coast of Australia. The average depth of this ocean is 3,890 meters, with the deepest point being the Java Trench, which is 7,450 metres below sea level. North of 50° S latitude, 86 percent of the major basin is covered with pelagic sediment, with globigerina ooze accounting for more than half of the total. The remainder is coated with terrigenous sediments, and glacial outwash covers nearly all of the extreme southern latitudes.
The Zambezi, the Arvandrud/Shatt-al-Arab, the Indus, the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Irrawaddy are among the major rivers that flow into the Indian Ocean. The currents in this oceanic region are controlled by the monsoon season. During the summer, one current runs clockwise in the northern hemisphere, while the other current flows counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere. The majority of the flow pattern is made up of these two enormous, circular currents. When the winter monsoon arrives, the currents in the northern hemisphere are reversing direction.
Deep water circulation is primarily influenced by water streaming in from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, and Antarctic currents, which all contribute to the overall circulation. The surface temperature is 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit) north of 20 degrees S latitude and exceeds 28 degrees Celsius (82 degrees Fahrenheit) to the east. Surface temperatures rapidly decrease south of 40 degrees south latitude. However, the maximum salinity is found in the Arabian Sea and a strip between southern Africa and southwestern Australia, despite the fact that the average salinity of surface water ranges from 32 to 37 parts per 1,000 parts of water (ppt). If you live south of 65° S latitude, you can find pack ice and icebergs all year long. However, they rarely make it north of 45° S latitude.
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The Atlantic Ocean Is A Large Body Of Water.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean on the planet, and its name is derived from the Greek mythological “Sea of Atlas.” It encompasses approximately one-fifth of the entire oceanic surface area. The Atlantic Ocean receives water from a land area that is four times the size of both the Pacific and Indian oceans combined. The Atlantic Ocean, excluding the waters next to it, has an area of 82,400,000 km2 and has a volume of 323,617,637 km3. The whole area of the ocean, including the bordering seas, is 106,400,000 km2, and the total volume is 354,700,000 km3. The Atlantic Ocean is an average depth of 3,332 metres (10,932 feet) when including the nearby seas. With the exception of the bordering seas, the average depth of the Atlantic is 3,926 metres (12,881 ft). The Puerto Rico Trench, at 8,605 meters (28,232 feet) below sea level, contains the deepest section of the ocean. The Atlantic Ocean’s width varies from a narrow 2,848 kilometers between Brazil and Liberia to a broad 4,830 kilometers between the United States and northern Africa, depending on where you are in the world.
The topography of this ocean can be imagined as a vast S-shaped basin spreading north to south and separated into two parts by countercurrents at the equator (about 8° N latitude), with the North Atlantic flowing north and the South Atlantic extending south. The Atlantic Ocean is located in the western hemisphere and extends all the way to North and South America. The Atlantic Ocean is connected to the Pacific Ocean in the east by the Arctic Ocean, which connects the two oceans in the north and south. Countless hours of human effort went into the construction of the Panama Canal, which now connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Located in the east, the 20° east meridian separates the Atlantic Ocean from the Indian Ocean. The Arctic Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean are separated by a line that runs from Greenland to the southernmost tip of Svalbard and up to northern Norway. The Fram Basin contains the lowest point on the Atlantic Ocean, which is 4,665 meters below sea level.
Numerous bays, gulfs, and seas line the Atlantic coastline, including the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, and others. The Atlantic Ocean is divided into two parts: the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The islands of Svalbard, Greenland, Iceland, Rockall, Great Britain, Ireland, Fernando de Noronha, the Azores, the Madeira Islands, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Newfoundland, Bermuda, the West Indies, Ascension, St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia Island are among the world’s most remote and uninhabited places.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a massive undersea mountain range that stretches from Iceland in the north to around 58° S latitude in the south, becoming quite wide at approximately 1,600 km. Most of the length of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is covered by a rift valley, which is a valley caused by faults, and the depth of this ridge is often less than 2,700 m in many places, with mountain peaks rising up to form islands above the sea. The Walvis Ridge is a tiny undersea ridge in the south Atlantic that is less than 100 kilometers wide.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge divides the Atlantic Ocean into two massive troughs ranging in depth from 3,700 to 5,500 metres. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is one of several transverse ridges that run crosswise between the continents, and it separates the ocean floor into numerous different basins. In the North Atlantic, large basins include the Guiana, North American, Cape Verde, and Canaries basins, as well as the Gulf of Mexico. Large basins in the South Atlantic include the Angola, Cape, Argentina, and Brazil basins, to name a few.
The deep ocean bottom is primarily level, however, there are a number of seamounts, guyots, and deeps or trenches to be found in the area. The deepest trench in the North Atlantic is the Puerto Rico Trench, which measures 8,605 meters in depth; the deepest trench in the South Atlantic is the South Sandwich Trench, which measures 8,428 metres in depth; and the deepest trench near the equator is the Romanche Trench, which measures 7,454 metres in depth. The Milwaukee Deep, which is located within the Puerto Rico Trench, is the deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean at 8,605 metres. It is the deepest point in the world. The Laurentian Abyss is located off the coast of Canada’s eastern coast. The shelves that run along the margins of the continents make up around 11 percent of the bottom topography, and there are several deep canals that cut through the continental rise that contribute to this figure.
The Pacific Ocean Is A Large Body Of Water.
The Pacific Ocean is the world’s largest body of water, and it was named by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, who discovered that the Pacific was exceptionally peaceful (“Pacifique” in French, which means “peaceful”) for the majority of his journey from the Straits of Magellan to the Philippine Islands. Typhoons and hurricanes frequently wreak havoc on the islands of the “calm ocean,” which is in stark contrast to its name. Volcanoes and earthquakes are common occurrences in the countries that border the Pacific, sometimes known as the Pacific Rim. Tsunamis, which are huge waves triggered by an underwater earthquake, have been responsible for the devastation of entire towns.
Approximately 15,500 kilometers stretch from the Bering Sea in the Arctic all the way to the cold waters of Antarctica’s Ross Sea in the South. The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of Earth’s surface, covers 179.7 million kilometers square, and has an area of 179.7 million kilometers square. Located at 5° N latitude, the Pacific Ocean is the broadest in the eastward direction, stretching all the way from Indonesia to the Columbian Coast, a distance of 19,800 kilometers. Its westernmost point is most likely the Strait of Malacca, which is the world’s longest navigable waterway. The Pacific Ocean also features the Mariana Trench, which is the lowest point on the planet and the deepest portion of the ocean at 10,911 meters below sea level, making it the world’s lowest point and deepest part of the ocean. It is estimated that the Pacific Ocean contains 25,000 islands, which is more than any other ocean. In fact, the majority of these islands are found south of the equator. The Celebes Sea, the Coral Sea, the East China Sea, the Sea of Japan, the South China Sea, the Sulu Sea, the Tasman Sea, and the Yellow Sea are among the largest seas in the Pacific. The Straits of Malacca, which connect the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the west, and the Straits of Magellan, which connect the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in the east, connect the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
With a mean depth of 4,270 metres, the majority of the ocean bottom in the central Pacific basin is pretty level and relatively flat. Seamounts, which are submerged peaks with steep sides and flat tops, account for the majority of the variation in the ocean floor. West of the equator, mountain arcs known as the Solomon Islands and New Zealand tower thousands of feet above the surface of the water. As well as deep tunnels such as the Mariana Trench, the Philippine Trench, and the Tonga Trench, mountain arcs can also form ridges and ridgelines that run parallel to the outer borders of the vast western Pacific continental shelf. The East Pacific Rise is approximately 3,000 kilometers broad and rises approximately three kilometers above the nearby ocean floor. As a component of the worldwide mid-oceanic ridge, it is positioned along the eastern margin of the Pacific Basin, on the eastern edge of the Pacific Basin. A large proportion of the sediments in the Pacific Ocean are authigenic or pelagic in origin, owing to the tiny amount of land area that drains into this massive body of water.
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